Contains: Child Poverty
Related to: Births and Fertility, Life Expectancy, Safeguarding Children and Young People, Teenage Conceptions, Education Attainment, Not in Education, Employment or Training, Out of Work Benefits, Employment and Economic Activity, Anxiety and Depression, Self-Harm, Suicide and Mortality of Undetermined Intent, Hypertension, Cancer, People with Multiple Needs, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Dementia, General Mortality, Cost of Living, Fuel Poverty, Crime and Disorder, Food Poverty
Socio-economic inequality defined
Socio-economic inequality is defined within the Marmot Review and is based on the theory that there is a social gradient to health and wellbeing.
- Bath and North East Somerset is one of the least deprived authorities in the country, ranking 247 out of 326 English authorities (where 1 = most deprived).
- At a small area level there are differences in deprivation within B&NES.
What does the data say?
Socio-economic inequality in Bath and North East Somerset
The impacts of Socio-economic inequality
Locally, we have seen that this issue is related to a wide range of factors across the life-course1.
Pre School & At School
Young Adults & Employment
Poor school readiness
[[Self Harm|Hospital admissions for self harm]]
State nursing home
Dementia (at a younger age)
The Marmot Review 2
Marmot indicators suggest that Bath and North East Somerset is generally significantly higher than nationally and is also generally better than regionally3. The only indicator where this is not the case is with respect to children achieving a good level of development at age 5. For this indicator B&NES is inline nationally and regionally.
Health gaps between occupations
Health gaps are the differences in self-assessed health experienced between socio-economic groupings of occupations. They are measured as the percentage point difference in the rates of "Not Good" health, reported in the 2011 Census, between the most and least advantaged socio-economic occupations. Occupations are classified by the Office for Nataional Statistics against seven groups.
In Bath and North East Somerset4 this health gap presents as a difference of
- 20% for men (greater than the figure for England and Wales)
- 18.5% for women (lower than the figure for England and Wales)
Compared to other Unitary authorities (those composed in a similar way to Bath and North East Somerset), the gap for men is ranked 10th highest (out of 55), while for women the gap is ranked 24/55.
Fig 2 - Health Gap 2011 between Class 1 and Class 7 (M/F) B&NES compared to Unitary Authorities
Key stage 4 - In B&NES there have been significant differences in the percentage of children in secondary schools that achieve 5+ A*-Cs GCSEs (or equivalent - including English and Maths), depending on their socio-economic backgrounds, 31.5% of disadvantaged pupils (three year average 2011,2012,2013) compared to 67.9% of non-disadvantaged pupils. 6
- 1. Bath and North East Somerset Council (2013) JSNA - Socio-Economic Inequality: Presentation to Wellbeing Policy Development & Scrutiny Panel http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/sites/default/files/soci-oeconomic_inequality_presentation_jan_2013.pdf(accessed 16 Apr 2013)
- 2. UCL Institute of Health Equity (February 2010) The Marmot Review, strategic review of health inequalities in England post-2010 (downloaded 13/04/2012) http://www.instituteofhealthequity.org/
- 3. London Health Observatory (2010) Marmot Indicators for Local Authorities in England, 2012 - Bath and North East Somerset (downloaded 12/04/2012) http://www.lho.org.uk/LHO_Topics/national_lead_areas/marmot/MarmotIndicators2011.aspx
- 4. Office for National Statistics (2013) Health gaps by socio-economic position of occupations in England, Wales, English regions and local authorities, 2011 http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census-analysis/health-gaps-by-socio-economic-position-of-occupations-in-england--wales--english-regions-and-local-authorities--2011/rpt-health-gaps-2011.html (Accessed 08/11/13) local analysis
- 5. Department of Education (5th March 2014) School and Local Statistics, Bath and North East Somerset, KS2 2013 Results, http://www.education.gov.uk/cgi-bin/schools/performance/group.pl?qtype=LA&superview=pri&view=aat&set=4&sort=&ord=&tab=12&no=800&pg=1 (viewed 24/03/2014)
- 6. Department of Education (14th March 2014) School and Local Statistics, Bath and North East Somerset, KS2 2013 Results, http://www.education.gov.uk/cgi-bin/schools/performance/group.pl?qtype=LA&superview=sec&view=aat&set=4&sort=&ord=&tab=114&no=800&pg=1 (viewed 24/03/2014)